We take great pride in making our clients feel confident about their jobs during the production process. To help you gain a better understanding of what’s happening to your project, we’ve compiled a glossary of terms that we commonly use in our industry.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X
The ability of a material to take up moisture
A type of paper folding in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion effect.
In photographic reproduction, the primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors.
Large white areas in a design layout.
The condition of type and or art materials as they level up on a horizontal or vertical line.
A term for a random, coincidental path or a row of white space within a segment of copy.
The measured length (in points) of the lowercase alphabet of a certain size and series of type.
Any materials or images that are prepared for graphic reproduction.
All illustrated material, ornamentation, photos and charts etc., that is prepared for reproduction.
Any part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body of the letter such as in "d", "b" and "h".
Changes made after composition stage where customer is responsible for additional charges.
A term referring to the margin which lies closest to the back of the book.
Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.
That portion of a photograph or line art drawing that appears furthest from the eye; the surface upon which the main image is superimposed.
A term used to describe the aesthetic or harmony of elements, whether they are photos, art or copy, within a layout or design.
Also called wallet flap; the wallet flap has more rounded flap edges.
The primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page.
This is a term used to describe the imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, punctuation points etc.
This term refers to a standard size of paper stock; even though the required size may be smaller or larger.
Basis or basic weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that particular paper grade.
A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books.
Various methods of securing folded sections together and or fastening them to a cover, to form single copies of a book.
On offset presses a fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber to transfer the impression from the plate onto the paper.
A printing method in which there are two blanket cylinders through which a sheet of paper is passed and printed on both sides.
Extra ink area that crosses trim line, used to allow for variations that occur when the reproduction is trimmed or die-cut.
Any enlargement of photos, copies or line art.
The main shank or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders and descenders. Also: A term used to define the thickness or viscosity of printer's ink.
The point size of a particular type character.
Any type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous.
A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17x22 inches.
A general classification to describe papers used to print books; its standard size is 25x38 inches. A printed work which contains more than 64 pages.
A registration problem, usually on copiers, where the image appears to bounce back and forth. A bounce usually occurs in one direction depending on how the paper is passing through the machine. This is usually accented by card stock (especially if it's over the machine's spec). When a customer refuses a job for whatever reason.
In layout design, the term for dividing or separating the art and copy elements into single color paste-up sheets.
A pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.
A term used to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative to its given basis weight.
A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.
A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.
The measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils.
A term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction.
An imaginary horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters.
Instructions in the typesetting process that indicate the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and the rest of the letters in lower case.
Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.
Halftone screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per inch.
Paper coated with clay, white pigments and a binder. Better for printing because there is less picking.
Printing papers used for printing projects that require a special treatment of detail and shading.
Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.
To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order. (see Gather)
Black step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets, to facilitate collating and checking of the sequence of book signatures.
This term refers to a color test strip, which is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It is a standardized (GATF-Graphic Arts Technical Foundation) process which allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration, and dot gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar system designed to detect inking problems.
The processes of separating the primary color components for printing.
Transparent film containing a positive photographic color image.
Space between two or more columns of type on one page.
The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter for reproduction by printing.
A narrow, elongated type face.
Image made of non-discernable picture elements which give appearance of continuous spectrum of grey values or tones.
The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.
Refers to any typewritten material, art, photos etc., to be used for the printing process.
Marks on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines or register indicators.
A term describing a general type of papers used for the covers of books, pamphlets etc.
When the rubber blanket on a cylinder moves forward due to contact with the plate or paper. Result of added thickness of folded sheets being behind one another in a folded signature. Outer edges of sheets creep away from back most fold as more folded sheets are inserted inside the middle.
To eliminate a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks.
Markings at edges of original or on guide sheet to indicate the area desired in reproduction with negative or plate trimmed (cropped) at the markings.
Elements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages (usually rules).
Not lying flat and tending to form into cylindrical or wavy shapes. A term to describe the differences of either side of a sheet relative to coatings, absorbency etc.; the concave side is the curl side.
Machine for accurately cutting stacks of paper to desired dimensions...can also be used to crease. Also trims out final bound books' top size (soft cover).
A shade of blue used in the four-color process; it reflects blue and green and absorbs red.
The gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or blanket clamps is housed.
The rough or feathered edge of paper when left untrimmed.
An instruction given to remove an element from a layout.
The degree of tone, weight of darkness or color within a photo or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer. Reference, densitometer.
A term that describes that portion of lower case letters which extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".
Design, letters or shapes, cut into metal (mostly brass) for stamping book covers or embossing. An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.
A method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes, either post press or in line. The process of cutting paper in a shape or design by the use of a wooden die or block in which are positioned steel rules in the shape of the desired pattern.
Color separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to color photographic paper creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed.
Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page which attracts attention of the reader.
Occurs when you fold into a fold (such as a letter fold). At the side of one of the creases you get an indentation. It may look like a small inverted triangle.
The smallest individual element of a halftone.
Darkening of halftone image due to ink absorption in paper causing halftone dots to enlarge. Terms to describe the occurrence whereby dots are printing larger than they should.
A term that describes any additives to ink which encourages the drying process.
The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.
A shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the affect of the image lifting off the page.
Any matte finished paper.
A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp.
Color reproduction from monochrome original. Keyplate usually printed in dark color for detail, second plate printed in light flat tints. A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo.
Paper which has a different color or finish on each side.
Any ink that acquires its color by the use of aniline pigments or dyes. Reference, aniline
The finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. Reference, calendar rolls.
The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter with graphic elements in page layout form in digital format for reproduction by printing.
A process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the color separation negatives; the paper is passed through the electrically charged pigmented toners, which adhere electrostatically, resulting in the finished proof.
Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.
A unit of measurement equaling 12 points or 4.5mm.
A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry.
To raise in relief a design or letters already printed on card stock or heavy paper by an uninked block or die. In rubber and plastic plate making the process is usually done by heat.
A light sensitive substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver halide compound. This side should face the lens when the film is exposed.
A term that describes a glossy coating on paper.
Attaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding.
A printing process whereby images such as copy or art are etched onto a plate. When ink is applied, these etched areas act as small wells to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is lifted out of the etched areas creating raised images on the paper.
The form used by the printer to calculate the project for the print buyer. This form contains the basic parameters of the project including size, quantity, colors, bleeds, photos etc.
Type with width greater than normal producing a rectangular effect.
That stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light sensitive coating.
A white pigment added to a colored pigment to reduce its intensity and improve its working qualities.
Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.
Type that is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide strokes.
Also called wash coat; any thinly coated paper stock.
The surface quality of paper.
Dull - (low gloss) also matte or matte gloss.
The registration of items within a given page.
A bound book or booklet etc. having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.
Papers that have a surface resembling metal.
Markings at top edges that show where folds should occur.
Machine used to fold signatures down into sections.
Number of page at top or bottom either centered, flushed left or flushed right often with running headline.
The characters which make up a complete typeface and size.
Folder with printing on one side so that when folded once in each direction, the printing on outside of the folds.
Group of frames or impositions in the same forme of different jobs arranged and positioned to be printed together.
The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.
To assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for binding.
Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; collating.
Marring a print by the placement of an image of work printed on the reverse side which has interfered with its drying so that differences in the trapping frame colors or glass variations are apparent.
Image which appears as a lighter area on a subsequent print due to local blanket depressions from previous image areas on a letterpress rotary machine as well as on an offset press.
Garbage in, garbage out.
An orange colored paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials for exposure for platemaking.
An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another.
Direction of fibers in a sheet of paper governing paper properties such as increased size changes with relative humidity, across the grain, and better folding properties along the grain.
A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather, alligator, wood, etc.
A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process.
The grippers of the printing press move the paper through the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet; this edge is the gripper edge.
Space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge. The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book.
Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.
Tone graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines, with equidistant centers.
Imperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, trapping errors, etc.
The lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration. In the finished halftone, these highlights are represented by the finest dots.
That space on the spine of a case bound book between the block of the book and the case binding.
That portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.
High resolution, large format device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts.
Arrangement of pages so that they print correctly on a press sheet, and the pages are in proper order when the sheets are folded.
Product resulting from one cycle of printing machine. The pressure of the image carrier, whether it be the type, plate or blanket, when it contacts the paper.
A relatively thick paper stock; basis size---25 1/2 x 30 1/2.
Extra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.
Extra blank pages inserted loosely into book after printing.
Text that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward.
The paper cover sometimes called the "dust cover" of a hardbound book.
A number assigned to a printing project used for record keeping and job tracking. Also used to retrieve old jobs for reprints or reworking by customer.
To vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are tightly aligned for final trimming.
Vibrating, sloping platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper.
The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.
A clear gloss coating applied to printed material for strength, appearance and protection.
A rendition that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs, thumbnails etc., of the final printed piece before it goes to print.
The dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next.
Space between lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline and the next.
A stiff heavy business paper generally used for keeping records.
Printing that utilizes inked raised surfaces to create the image.
The addition of space between typeset letters.
A paper that emulates the look and texture of linen cloth.
The process of printing that utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images.
A personalized type or design symbol for a company or product.
The actual weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.
Imprinted space around edge of page.
To write up instructions, as on a dummy.
A coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring. Reference, calendaring.
Commonly taken as the area between highlight and shadow area of a subject's face in halftone image.
An undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens.
A term used to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption.
Film that contains the same images as the original print, except that all colors and shades are reversed. Reference, positive.
A light, low cost groundwood paper made especially for newspapers. Reference, groundwood.
When the basis weight of paper differs from the actual weight, the term nominal weight is used.
The most commonly used printing method, whereby the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket which receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper.
Indirect printing method in which the inked image on the press-plate is first printed onto a rubber blanket, then in turn offsets the inked impression on to the sheet of paper.
A term for uncoated book paper.
A light bond paper used for typing and used with carbon paper because of its thinness.
Quality of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through.
A quality of paper that allows relatively little light to pass through.
Ink that completely covers any ink under itself.
Any light sensitive surfaces that are not sensitive to red.
Surplus of copies printed.
A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.
A transparent sheet placed over artwork, in register with the work it covers; this is used to call out other color components of the work, instructions or corrections.
Any printing that is done on an area that has already been printed.
One side of a leaf.
The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.
Proofs made up from pages.
A hard finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand.
Markings usually dotted lines at edges showing where perforations should occur.
A term used to describe the binding process where the signatures of a book are held together by a flexible adhesive.
Binding process where backs of sections are cut off, roughened and glued together, and rung in a cover.
Printing both sides of the paper (or other material) on the same pass through the printing machine.
A printing press that prints on both sides of the page in a single pass.
Punching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper or cardboard to facilitate tearing along a desired line.
Standard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch
A method of binding books whereby holes are drilled on the side closest the spine, and a plastic grasping device is inserted to hold the pages together.
Reproduction of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material, to form a plate bearing a relief, planographic or intaglio printing surface.
The cylinder on a printing press on which the plate is mounted.
Making a printing plate from a film or flat including preparation of the plate surface, sensitizing, exposing through the flat, developing or processing, and finishing.
A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.
Film that contains an image with the same tonal values as the original; opposite of a negative.
Pixels per inch.
Actual press sheet to show image, tone values and colors as well as imposition of frame or press-plate.
In printing the four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black.
The quality of papers to show reproduced printed images.
Printing inks, usually in sets of four colors. The most frequent combination is yellow, magenta, cyan, and black, which are printed, one over another in that order, to obtain a colored print with the desired hues, whites, blacks, and grays.
Printing from two or more half tones to produce intermediate colors and shades.
The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.
The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.
500 sheets of paper.
The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.
Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.
A pigment somewhat redder than true magenta.
A term given to copy that accommodates the lines of a picture or other image or copy.
Stitching where the wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center. Only used with folded sections, either single sections or two or more sections inset to form a single section.
A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with easily.
The enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.
Impressions or cuts in flat material to facilitate bending or tearing.
The placement of halftone screens to avoid unwanted moire patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45deg, magenta 75deg, yellow 90deg, and cyan 105deg.
A measurement equaling the number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.
A photo print made by using a halftone negative; also called a velox.
Unwanted ink marks in the non-image area.
The printing of two different images on two different sides of a sheet of paper by turning the page over after the first side is printed and using the same gripper and side guides.
A problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side.
Printed sheet (or its flat) that consists of a number of pages of a book, placed so that they will fold and bind together as a section of a book. The printed sheet after folding.
That quality of paper defined by its levelness which allows for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity of print.
Back edge of a book.
A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side.
Small area printed in a second color.
A film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. Reference, trapping
A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout.
A proofreader's symbol that is usually written in the copy margin, that indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction, should be left as it was.
A term for unprinted paper or other material to be printed.
A dense, strong paper stock.
A paper's ability to withstand pressure.
A high quality printing paper.
A printing process whereby slow drying ink is applied to paper and while the ink is still wet, it is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface.
A halftone screen that contains all the same sized dots.
Inks that do not block out the colored inks that they print over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate colors.
The process of printing wet ink over printed ink which may be wet or dry.
Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.
A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc.
A term given to books bound on the longer dimension.
A clear shiny ink used to add gloss to printed pieces. The primary component of the ink vehicle. Reference, vehicle.
A combination of varnish, waxes, dryers etc., that contain the pigment of inks and control the flow, the drying and the adhesion of the pigments to the printed surface.
A finish of paper that is rough, bulky and has a degree of tooth.
Fade to white or small decorative design or illustration. A photo or illustration etc., in which the tones fade gradually away until they blend with the surface they are printed on.
The procedure of cleaning a particular ink from all of the printing elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.
A translucent logo that is embossed during the papermaking process while the paper slurry is on the dandy roll. Reference, dandy roll
A single word or two left at the end of a paragraph, or a part of a sentence ending a paragraph, which loops over to the next page and stands alone. Also, the last sentence of a paragraph which contains only one or two short words.
Another name for bond paper.
Papers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser printers.